After seeing this arbitrary command execution vulnerability in Ubiquiti equipment, discovered by SEC Consult, I was intrigued. In that bug, code that would have been secure on a more recent version of PHP was rendered vulnerable because of the ancient PHP version used 2. I wanted to see what other bugs might be caused by PHP that works in unexpected ways. In those PHP scripts I saw a ton of opportunities for Ubiquiti to get things wrong because of the number of calls they made to execute external programs using the shell.
This could allow an attacker to inject unexpected parameters, overwrite unexpected files, or execute unexpected commands. Which files are accessible without authentication?
It provides a temporary-access facility. Without airControl, an admin could manually generate a ticket for the root account by running a command like this on the device:. Visiting this link causes the ticket to be consumed and deleted from the ticket database.
This is the situation that opens the vulnerability. If that ticket is found, ma-show prints out the contents of the ticket and returns a zero exit code to indicate success otherwise it returns a non-zero exit code. The PHP code parses the content of the ticket to find out which user the ticket is for, and finally it creates a logged-in session for that user using the ma-auth binary the same binary that is used to create a session during a regular login.
Okay, so how can this go wrong? Well, ma-show actually has a bonus feature. If you call it with no ticket ID argument, it prints out every ticket in its database, and sets its exit code to the number of tickets that it printed out.
We can trigger this by passing a single space character in as our ticket ID. This is where the magic of PHP 2 comes in. So we can supply a? So in the situation where the ticket database is present, but empty e. I sent the reproduction instructions to my friend, and sure enough, they were able to get root on their Nanobeam using it.
The vulnerability was promptly patched in airOS v8. Ubiquiti report that this is also fixed in airGateway v1. One way of achieving this mitigation would be to create two random tickets at a time, one of which will never be consumed, so that the ticket database is never emptied. If you were building your own custom authentication system on top of the ticket functionality, this is what you could do to avoid the vulnerability when used against older firmware. This is going to sound silly, but I have 2 radios that are running FW 5.
Could you perhaps explain how to craft the url?Find the default login, username, password, and ip address for your Ubiquiti AirOS router. You will need to know then when you get a new router, or when you reset your router. Your Ubiquiti AirOS router has a firewall that helps protect your local network from unwanted Internet access.
The firewall works by blocking the incoming connections to and from the Internet. Some online gaming and applications will run much smoother if you open additional ports.
Hi guys,Is there a problem with your IP address Please help. Setelah panel airOS terbuka kini dapat melakukan settingan konfigurasi sesuai keperluan 9. AirOS terdiri dari 6 menu utama yaitu main, wireless, network, advanced, services, system. Innovating Africa. Airos is a company that is passionate about innovation and vision, and our vision is to improve quality of life through technology!
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About The Author Amy Simpson. Related Posts. Login Guide. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.Joinsubscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. Routers protect their web interfaces—where you can configure their networking, parental control, and port forwarding settings—with a default username and password.
Before resetting your router to its default settings, you should first try using the default username and password to log in. Routers have a small, hidden button you can press to reset the router to its default factory settings.
The exact process and location of the reset button vary from router to router. However, the process is generally the same on most routers. First, look at the back or perhaps the bottom of the router.
After you release the button, the router will reset itself to the factory default settings, and then reboot. If UPnP is enabled on the router, it will automatically open the port. NAT-PMP, which you may also see, is a similar way of automatically forwarding ports, but fewer routers support it. You can forward any ports you like. The Best Tech Newsletter Anywhere.
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All email you receive will be from CappersPicks. Here are the details of the feature set. Passenger login is called "Pax Login". In the next phase of this rollout, we shall be further separating "Passengers" from "Members".
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This has led to increased censorship and throttling of open discussions. This is a clarification that this site is meant for a FREE EXCHANGE of ideas. The implementation will be complete within a week. TL Entries can now be Edited and Fixed by the original updater, if there are errors. So there is no need to Void TLs. To address this issue, effective tomorrow, ALL.Ironically success in the near term may be achieved by micro breweries acting like macro breweries and vice versa. Large national breweries are getting destroyed in the market, and they need to retool their efforts and product lines.
Macro breweries have to change their modus operandi to better court the ever shifting market. There is no denying that mid-size or small breweries need to create a far better product at a lower price point. Handcrafted sake is expensive to make, and the retail price turns many potential drinkers away. The quality of sake yen for yen at the lower tier product offerings do not compete well with shochu or beer. The Present - Part 2 - Where is Sake being consumed. The Present - Part 3 - How much Sake is being sold.
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Predictions The Changing Tide An Uphill Battle The Future is Now The Written Word Our YouTube Channel The Sake Social Story The Team Why Choose Sake Social Sake Blog This Week Only. Q4 2014 was probably the biggest quarter native advertising has ever seen by several times over. Once the quarter started, the native ad players hit the publishers with an insatiable fury. They came all at once too. They were equipped with many big brand advertiser campaigns and some had what seemed like almost unlimited budgets with high payouts.
This was a proven out by their engagement results. The ads were very integrated and that was a big contributor to the high CTRs. Either way, native ad performance was great in Q4 2014 and publishers will begin to really take notice in 2015. Related Read: How Can Bloggers Use Native Advertising and Content Marketing. Our bet is that it does. The ability to place highly integrated ads that get high engagement and usually lead to white label advertorials is like a crack to big brand advertisers.
Related Read: 5 Tips in Monetizing Native AdsAs the publishers and advertisers start to open their eyes to the great initial results of native advertising, so will new incumbents. New native advertising networks will flood the market with high promises and low value offerings looking for flash-in-the-pan profits.
This will accelerate if a big player like Google, Microsoft or Yahoo buys a native ad network. As with any new market, it will cut its own fat over time and the flash-in-the-pan native ad networks will die off and the top native ad networks that actually create value in the market will innovate and dominate. Right now targeting is quite rudimentary and not too much innovation has been put into the native ad creatives. There will be a lot more spammy native ad networks popping up than value-add native ad networks.
Be wary of which networks you choose to run your native ad campaigns with. Even the publishers that use DFP premium have no clue about it or how to use the features. Google made a great step to include it in the DFP Publisher University. The first party data management tools are only available for DFP Premium and not DFP Small Business.
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